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viernes, 22 de noviembre de 2019
Propuestas de trabajo para la subcomisión de la reforma electoral PDF Imprimir E-Mail

Las distintas formaciones políticas con representación parlamentaria han presentado en el Congreso sus propuestas para la agenda de trabajo de la subcomisión creada para estudiar una reforma global de la Ley Orgánica del Régimen Electoral General (LOREG). congreso.gifEn los escritos de los distintos grupos se percibe que las prioridades no son las mismas y que cada uno tiene sus propios objetivos. La subcomisión de reforma electoral, que preside Alfonso Guerra, deberá decidir este mes de octubre su calendario y prorgrama de actividades para los próximos meses.

El PP, el Bloque Nacionalista Galego (BNG) y Coalición Canaria (CC) quieren que la reforma de la Ley Electoral que debe estudiarse en la subcomisión creada al efecto en el Congreso empiece por resolver la situación de los residentes en el extranjero, el voto emigrante, con el fin de que puedan votar en urna lo antes posible. Sin embargo, el PSOE, aunque no lo desecha de antemano, no acepta ''desgajar' este asunto y sigue poniendo en primer lugar la ampliación del derecho de voto de los inmigrantes en elecciones municipales.

El voto en urna de los emigrantes es una prioridad absoluta para el BNG, que querría verlo aplicado en las elecciones gallegas de primavera y que pide que se aborde en la subcomisión "con carácter inmediato".

También Coalición Canaria, con muchos electores en el exterior, plantea en primer lugar la modificación del procedimiento de votación de los residentes ausentes, "instaurando el voto en urna o a través de medios telemáticos".

Para el PP, el voto presencial de los emigrantes es una de sus prioridades y cree que debería anticiparse esa reforma porque así quedó recogido en el Estatuto de la Ciudadanía en el Exterior que aprobó el Congreso, fue reclamado por unanimidad en el Parlamento gallego este verano y además su urgencia viene determinada por la previsión de celebrar comicios gallegos y europeos el próximo año.

El PSOE, por su parte, también cita el voto de los emigrantes entre los temas que a su juicio deben tratarse en la subcomisión, pero poniendo en primer término el derecho de sufragio activo en elecciones municipales de los extranjeros residentes en España, algo que sólo podrá aplicarse, como pronto, en 2011. 

Además, en su escrito deja claro que, "aunque se analicen distintos temas de forma separada, se ha de buscar una formulación de todos ellos desde la unidad y coherencia del sistema", dando a entender que no es partidario de anticipar ninguna reforma parcial. "El sistema electoral es 'un todo' y el valor añadido de la subcomisión es que ha de dar una propuesta de reforma global que tenga en cuenta la sistematicidad del modelo", recalca el PSOE.

En el listado de los socialistas también se recogen cuestiones como la suplencia de cargos electos acogidos a bajas de maternidad, la regulación de la precampaña electoral, la mejora del ejercicio del sufragio para discapacitados, el reparto de escaños por circunscripciones en función de la población inscrita en el censo o la mejora del régimen de actualización del censo electoral.

Alcaldía para la lista más votada

En el caso del PP, la segunda prioridad es modificar la legislación electoral para garantizar que en los ayuntamientos gobierne la lista más votada, una reivindicación que el PP llevaba en su programa electoral. También CiU ha querido abrir este debate entre sus propuestas para la subcomisión electoral.

Tanto Esquerra Republicana como los nacionalistas de CiU, BNG y CC hacen hincapié en el establecimiento de circunscripciones electorales de ámbito autonómico para las elecciones europeas, un tema que CiU ya llevó al Pleno del Congreso y fue rechazada por PSOE y PP. 

Otra modificación de calado es la que plantea Izquierda Unida, que pretende modificar el sistema electoral limitando a uno el el mínimo de escaños por provincia, ampliando a 400 el número de diputados del Congreso y creando un 'colegio de restos' que permitiría compensar a las terceras fuerzas de ámbito estatal.

Listas abiertas

Asimismo, CiU sugiere en su listado una serie de reformas que abrirían la vía de las listas abiertas. Así, aboga por permitir listas abiertas en muncipios de hasta 500 habitantes, estudiar candidaturas cerradas no bloqueadas que permitan al elector expresar sus preferencias para el Congreso y el Parlamento Europeo y estudiar un sistema electoral mixto que permita la elección de parlamentarios por el sistema de doble voto (a la candidatura y al diputado).

Entre las demás propuestas figuran las ideas del BNG de extender las circunscripciones autonómicas a las generales, modificar la conformación del Senado y establecer una distribución proporcional de escaños por circunscripción, tomando como base el censo electoral en lugar de la población de derecho. Coalición Canaria, por su parte, añade además la conveniencia de modificar la Ley Electoral para dar un tratamiento único a las comunidades autónomas en la convocatoria de elecciones autonómicas.

Esquerra Republicana propone igualmente una serie de modificaciones técnicas sobre las mesas electorales y apuesta por introducir novedades como el voto electrónico, la anticipación del voto para los residentes en el extranjero y la exclusión de aquellos partidos que defiendan una ideología racista y xenófoba. 

Otro de los temas sobre la mesa es la revisión de las papeletas del Senado para evitar el alto grado de votos nulos en comparación con el Congreso, idea aprobada antes del verano por el Congreso e incluida en los listados del PP, de CiU y de ERC.

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